Craniofacial surgery encompasses a broad spectrum of reconstructive procedures of the cranium and face. The objectives of these procedures are to correct deformities of the face and skull bones that result from birth defects, trauma, or disease and to restore craniofacial form and function by medical and surgical means.
Diaphragmatic/phrenic nerve stimulator devices are indicated for certain ventilator-dependent individuals who lack voluntary control of their diaphragm muscles to enable independent breathing without the assistance of a mechanical ventilator for at least four continuous hours a day.
Microdiscectomy or open discectomy (MD/OD) are the standard procedures for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation and they involve removal of the portion of the intervertebral disc compressing the nerve root or spinal cord (or both) with or without the aid of a headlight loupe or microscope magnification.
Observation care is a well-defined set of specific, clinically appropriate services, which include ongoing short term treatment, assessment, and reassessment before a decision can be made regarding whether patients will require further treatment as hospital inpatients or if they are able to be discharged from the hospital.